Category Archives: Plants

Can I Show You My Jugs and My Rack?

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Can I Show You My Jugs and My Rack?

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Honestly, it’s not as bad as it sounds.   I am referring to the milk jugs and the new light rack I am using to grow seedlings for my garden.  When I found myself asking my garden pals this weekend if they wanted to see my jugs and my rack, I got a few laughs but I didn’t realize how totally funny it sounded until a male garden pal laughed and said, “Yes, I want to see your jugs and your rack!”   Oh, geez, this is a  slightly dirty spin on my garden projects — which are dirty to begin with!

The exciting news is that my experiment of using milk jugs as little greenhouses has sprouted success.   Thank you to hometown Wisconsin friend Maggie Strunk Leyes for inspiring me.   Here are two jugs with little sprouts inside:

I am also stoked about my new grow lights which arrived via Amazon last week and have been shining on my happy crop of tomatoes, eggplant and peppers.   The green glow of the lights has prompted some to ask if I’m growing marijuana plants.   But, although it is legal to grow 6 pot plants per adult in Colorado, I am not growing weed.

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Falling Head First Into The Garden — The Usual Early Season Psychosis

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April is a heady time of year for me.   Passionate discussions about all aspects of gardening (in-person, on the phone, via text message), frequent visits to local nurseries, intersecting projects and conversations, early morning inspirations and a parade of dirty shoes, gloves and digging clothes littering my floors are all signs that my brain and energy are focused on one subject – THE GARDEN.   Fortunately, the days are getting longer, I have time to work on a myriad of projects and garden geeks eager to talk and share surround me at every turn.

Making Lacto Bacillus Serum – organic fertilizerIMG_9452

  • Contacted John Swain, the horticulturalist for the Denver Golf Courses and designer/planter/co-manager of the donation garden at Harvard Gulch Golf Course and passionate home gardener.   A winter has come between our last fact filled gardener conversation so we had a lot to talk about.   As always, he is a fountain of enthusiasm and information and turned me on to two important sources as well as the benefit of using lacto bacillus serum in the garden (labs for short):
  • The Unconventional Farmer:   http://theunconventionalfarmer.com/
  • Build a Soil:  https://buildasoil.com/blogs/news/8634877-gil-carandang-lactobacillus-serum-recipe
  • Labs are a workhorse of beneficial bacteria (which is edible) and has multiple applications including — speeding decomposition in the compost pile, unclogging drains, treating powdery mildew on squash plants, eliminating odor in animal bedding and most importantly,  “Improves growth of plants when applied as foliar spray and soil drench. Improves their efficiency in uptaking nutrients so naturally, growth is enhanced. With the use of these microorganisms, the nutrients you spray or drench to feed your plants become more bio-available and easily absorbable by the plants. Technically, you can say that plants do not use organic nutrients directly. Microorganisms convert organic nutrients to their inorganic constituents which the plants utilize. Utilizing microbes, you will notice better plant growth and health.”   -The Unconvential Farmer.
  • Labs recipe:  I mixed myself up a batch and its still incubating.   Its easy to make and the recipe can be viewed on the link about from the Build a Soil website.   Basically, you wash rice and take the water and fill a Ball jar about 75% full and cover with a paper towel — make sure air can get in.   Store it on top of the refrigerator and after a few days, the liquid will separate.   Siphon off the center layer adding 1 part serum to 10 parts milk and put in another container, cover tightly and let sit for another few days.   Once curds appear, you can strain the liquid with a cheesecloth (the curds can be fried up and eaten).    You add 1 part serum to 20 parts water to spray in the garden.   Store in the frig or add molasses to store at room temperature.  Stable for about a year.

Garden Hacks

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  • Strawberries and asparagus grow happily together; plan to add strawberries to my new planted asparagus patch
  • Used my mole cages to sift compost into my cold frames
  • Sprinkle carrot and beet seeds together every few weeks to have a continuous crop
  • Marijuana growers have to dispose of growing mix are harvesting the plants; the vermiculate and soil less mix is great mixed into raised beds and helps lighten the soil
  • Dryer lint can be put in the compost pile
  • I used paint stirrers for marking seeds and plants.   Pick them up for free every time I stop at Home Depot or Lowe’s.

Progress at Rosedale Garden – my 19th year in this community garden!IMG_9438

  • Planted purple and green asparagus in two 8 inch deep trenches this week; once sprouted will cover with 3 inches of dirt
  • Peas planted on March 15 finally sprouted, planted a third row on April 7
  • Prepped more beds and mapped out where everything is going
  • Seeded pumpkin bed with winter wheat; won’t be planting there for two months
  • Garlic planted in frozen soil in late December is up and growing; looks like its going to make it!
  • Susan has been making videos of me at the garden and I am learning how to edit them!

Opening up the St. Philip Donation Garden

  • Scheduled a work day for this Sunday to get started prepping the beds at St. Philip.
  • One volunteer came and we cleaned up two beds, added fresh compost and planted peas, onions and a variety of cold crops.   Watered and talked about plans.
  • Three plots are spoken for with another two gals potentially interested in volunteering in the donation beds.
  • This is our third year and I’m sorry that I’ve lost my partner of the first two years, Lerae Schnickel to another church ministry.   She was great to work with and its hard to move forward without her support.

Helping at a Jovial Gardens Neighborhood ProjectIMG_9480

  • Jovial Gardens is a really cool Denver-based organization that helps build gardens in neighborhoods.   One of their goals is to decrease food scarcity in the urban environment and  grow food for local food banks.  The group originally started in Edgewater, a suburb on Denver, and organized gardens in more than 40 yards in the neighborhood.   https://jovialconcepts.org/about-us/
  • My friend and master gardener, Teri Connelly is working with Jovial to install gardens in the yards of a number of her neighbors in Arvada.   Today, I had the chance to visit on a work day and saw work in progress in at least 6 yards.   The enthusiasm and excitement of the neighbors and volunteers was awesome.   Teri shared that in one front yard garden they harvested almost a 1000 pounds of organic produce last year.   I would love to start such a program in my neighborhood (Trailmark)  in Littleton.

Seedling Update on the Home Front

  • My experiment of seeding tomatoes and peppers for the first time has had mixed results.   All but one of the 12 varieties of tomatoes I planted has sprouted.   It took less than a week.   I learned that they need a heat mat and lights!IMG_9484.JPG
  • 8 of 11 peppers sprouted this week.   More time needed?
  • The tomatoes are very leggy but John Swain told me that they need grow lights and that its not too late for them to stabilize.
  • I only have one grow light so I’ve set it up for 14 hours alternatively above the trays of peppers, then the tomatoes.   Ordered a 4 foot rack with light from Amazon yesterday so hope it arrives this week.
  • Nothing has sprouted in the milk jugs I planted last week.  Time will tell

 

 

 

 

 

Heat Mats, Seeding Trays and Milk Jugs: Sowing Spring Crops

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Heat Mats, Seeding Trays and Milk Jugs: Sowing Spring Crops

IMG_9147In between the last of the winter snows and the increasingly balmy days of Spring, I am a frenzy of activity – enjoying the season’s last ski days, March break with my kids and preparing to garden.  By early March, I am staging my seed packets of cold crops for planting, cleaning up the winter debris blowing around my yard and making the season’s first trips up to my community garden in downtown Denver.   St. Patrick’s Day approaches as the optimal plant date for peas and I often find myself shoveling aside snow and chiseling away at frozen earth to bury the precious seeds on or near that date.   This year, Colorado had an unexpectedly warm and dry March so my garden partner and I were able to turn our beds and slide the pea seeds in with ease – a welcome surprise!

Seed Trays and Heat Mats

IMG_9376On the home front, I planned to start seeds after taking a few years off.   In the past, I grew a ton of seedlings but found that transplanting them brought mixed results.   Was it really worth it?, I asked myself.  Generally, I find that direct sowing works best for most of my crops – greens, broccoli, cucumbers, pumpkins, basil, flowers, squashes, gourds, beans, etc.   But since I still have to purchase hot weather plants like tomatoes, peppers and eggplants, I thought about seeding them at home.   The only sticking points for me is the fact that these hot weather plants need special conditions to germinate; namely warm soil and more light.   Armed with a heat pad, a sunny window and packets of a dozen varieties of tomatoes and peppers, I decided to go for it.

So on March 24, I planted two trays of peppers and tomatoes; one with a heat mat and the17309369_10210917844015519_6103681504834658385_n other without.  Most of the varieties I planted need to be started 6-10 weeks before transplanting into the garden when the soil temperatures rise above 60 degrees at night. No matter that the average last frost date is generally considered to be May 15 in Denver, I don’t ever put in my tender crops before May 22 or Memorial Day weekend.    And even then, I’ll use Walls of Water just to make sure.  I can tell you stories about getting the plants all in on May 20 and an ice storm arriving that night.   Better safe than sorry.   By March 29, the tomatoes on the heat mat had sprouted but none of the peppers in the cold tray.    Was the soil not warm enough to germinate or do the peppers take longer?   Just to be safe, I found an inexpensive heat mat at Walmart ($24.99) and set it up.   As of today, March 31, no peppers have sprouted.   We’ll see what happens this week.

Milk Jugs Make Green Houses

After posting a photo of my seed trays on Facebook, my friend Maggie Leyes shared that she starts all her seeds in milk jugs and sets them outside.    She shared a link to a website with instructions which I promptly checked out:

http://www.agardenforthehouse.com/2012/01/what-to-winter-sow-and-when/

I was surprised to find that even tender crops stay warm and toasty in the milk jugs (even when covered in snow) so I thought I’d give it a try.   Following directions, I cut the milk jugs almost in half leaving a 2 inch “hinge”, punched some drainage holes in the bottom, and added soil less potting mix.   I put two varieties of seeds in each “greenhouse”, taped the pieces back together, labeled the jugs, nestled them in a recycled lid and placed them outside in the rain and impending snow.  We’ll see what happens!IMG_9375

 

 

End of Season Report: Brothers’ Garden Competition, 2016

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End of Season Report:   Brothers’ Garden Competition, 2016
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Getting the raised bed ready for planting                                                              .

Its been ten months since Dylan (15) and Tristan (12) started their garden competition at the end of May 2016.   The original goal was a competition to grow the most produce.   As the summer progressed, the goal changed to a more simple one — take care of the garden and see what happens.  The gardens grew all summer (with a little watering help from me) and produced a bounty of produce.   Quite unexpectedly, the one who had not gardened much before shined and worked hard to plant a variety of items and tended carefully to his crops.   The other more experienced gardener who had planted his own plot for six years in my community garden was less than attentive and eventually lost interest in his garden.   Personally, I chalk up his disinterest to adolescence.   He going through some changes and one day, will be back to himself again.

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Tristan planted beet seeds in August.

When I left Colorado in late October for a month in Alaska, the gardens were still producing.   We were still harvesting beets, lettuce, carrots, broccoli, cucumbers, peppers and more.  When I returned in December, the frost had frozen the plants in their tracks.   Each bed remained buried beneath snow and ice for months.   With the recent thaw and sunny spring days of March, I took the time to clean up Dylan’s abandoned 4 X 4 plot and was surprised to find several pounds of carrots growing beneath the soil.  Woohoo!!

 

Here are come pictures of the gardens throughout the summer:

June 4 2016   Just Planted

July 4, 2016   Seeds Sprouting

August 13  The Harvest is Coming In

September 4   More Harvest

As the new garden season begins, I plan to rally my boys to try again and maybe this time, get in some Spring cold crops.   We’re off to Spring Break in MOAB in a few days with many hours to talk and and plan. My fingers are crossed that when we return, they’ll turn some dirt and get started again!

Extending the Season with Hoop Houses

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The cold frame Dave made me.

The cold frame Dave made me.

Jack be littles are climbing over the green striped Romas.

Jack be littles are climbing over the green striped Romas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For several years, I’ve been thinking about how to extend the season for growing cold crops in my garden.   To this end, my husband built me a cold frame which in theory was a great idea and a good design.   But, when the time came to plant cold crops and tend to them, the snow piled between my warm kitchen door and the box discouraged me from hiking out to water the plants tucked beneath the protective 6 pane windows.   Alas, no cold crops.  Fortunately, I later discovered that with the windows removed, the cold frame made a great raised bed for my spring/summer/fall plants.

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4 ft. X 4 ft. hoop house. Hoops attached to outside.

Recently, I heard about the concept of a hoop house from a garden leader I met from Michigan.   She told me that her garden community had purchased a hoop bender tool from Johnny’s Seeds and with it, one could easily bend 1/2 electrical conduit to form hoops for 4 X 4 ft. beds (and other sizes).   When I researched further, I found the hoop bender was on sale for less than $50 and all of a sudden, I could imagine a whole host of uses for these hoops.    Why not make hoop houses to protect my plants from the rabbit and pest invasion — and the elements?!  I also found out that in the cooler season, 4 mil plastic sheeting is best for keeping the heat in while allowing light to penetrate.   In the warmer season, row cover is preferred and also available from Johnny’s Seeds (www.johnnyseeds.com)

My garden partner and I placed our order and once the hoop bender arrived, we picked up 20 1/2 inch X 10 ft. electrical conduit pipes at Home Depot (less than $50) and set to work.   Our first goal was to make some for our community garden’s annual summer sale.   If we could use them, we surmised that other gardeners could too.   As expected, we sold out of our first 20 and started on another batch with more orders to fill.   At the sale, we also sold three 4 X 4 raised beds with two hoops each.   A big hit.

The hoop house with 4 mil plastic sheeting affixed with binder clips.

The hoop house with 4 mil plastic sheeting affixed with binder clips.

We are planning to make and share these with gardeners we know.   And will soon install many in community garden plots to get a head start on cold crops and to protect from the many pests — rabbits, bean beetles, Japanese beetles — hail and hot sun threatening to decimate our harvest.  I will report back how our garden crops fare in the late fall and early spring although I’m still not sure how I feel about trudging out into the yard to water plants when its cold and snowy.

Crafting with Birdhouse Gourds

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Last year’s dried gourd next to the newly harvested one.

Inspired by our garden neighbor Marilynn who grows birdhouse gourds for Earthlinks, my garden partners and I started growing them several years ago.   We found that these gourds are easy to grow with prolific vines that produce close to a dozen study green fruits every September.   After harvesting the crop each autumn, we divide the haul and suspend them with twine to dry from a kitchen pot rack or the ends of curtain rods.   This drying process takes at least six months, sometimes more.   Fast forward several years and we’ve amassed quite a collection of hollow brown gourds.   So this year, we finally got a date on the calendar to turn these garden treasures into art.   We were especially fortunate that our newest partner on the garden team, Suzanne Buntrock, took the time to do some research about paint, design and construction before our long anticipated get together.

Susan, Suzanne and her daughter Clare and I gathered at the kitchen table with the pile of dried gourds and various paints, tempera and acrylic.   After my husband Dave graciously agreed to drill out the holes – a 1 inch round one in the side and a small one for drainage on the bottom, we proceeded to remove the seeds and dried membrane from the gourds and saved most of the seeds.    We wondered if these seeds would produce the same gourd next season or had they cross pollinated with another species — something to research this winter.

After laying down newspaper, setting up paints and brushes and checking design ideas on Pinterest, we embarked on our artistic adventure.   Suzanne and my son Dylan tried various tempera paints but found after it dried a bit that the paint starting flaking off.   Susan and I worked with acrylic paints and found that the paint seemed to stay on better.   We had read that the final step should be a layer of polyurethane to protect the gourd from the elements.   Unfortunately, even the addition of this layer did not prevent the tempera paint from flaking off.   In the end, we got the project rolling and although some of us still need to add detail to the solid first coat on our gourds, we made some pretty cool birdhouses.   Here are some highlights of our creative afternoon.

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The Dog Days of Summer in the Garden

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The Dog Days of Summer in the Garden
Ripening blackberries

Ripening blackberries

Its late August and my garden is  bursting with vegetables and berries.   Although some of it is starting to look a little ragged, most is growing like gangbusters.   One notable exception is my tomato crop which was delayed due to an unusually cold and rainy Colorado May.  I am hoping that Mother Nature will delay autumn’s first frost and give my tomatoes a few more weeks to ripen.

Typically, this time of year tomatoes are my biggest haul with 20-40 pounds a week but alas, an abundance of other crops are filling the void.   Kale, cucumbers, chard, lettuce, scallions, peppers, onions, herbs, beans, squashes, greens, beets, broccoli, cherry tomatoes are filling my counters and refrigerator.   With so much to process in August,  I am always torn between staying home to cook the bounty or going out to enjoy the last beautiful sunny hot days of summer.   Trying to do it all presents its challenges!!!   Here are some photos from my last summer garden.

Black-eyed Susans are blooming for weeks!

Black-eyed Susans are blooming for weeks!

Wine barrel tomatoes and basil are slow but steady.

Wine barrel tomatoes and basil are slow but steady.

The only flowers in the window boxes to survive the southwest sun -- still gorgeous.

The only flowers in the window boxes to survive the southwest sun — still gorgeous.

 

 

 

When are my grapevines going to grow grapes?

When are my grapevines going to grow grapes?

Beets are ready!

Beets are ready!

Picking raspberries for my snack is the best!

Picking raspberries for my snack is the best!

The apple tree I nurtured for 6 years is not well.

The apple tree I nurtured for 6 years is not well.

Jack be littles are climbing over the green striped Romas.

Jack be littles are climbing over the green striped Romas.

Can never have enough basil.

Can never have enough basil.

Shallots are ready for the best vinaigrette in the world -- thanks Zoe!

Shallots are ready for the best vinaigrette in the world — thanks Zoe!

Front porch blooms were a door prize at the Littleton City Dinner. Looking good.

Front porch blooms were a door prize at the Littleton City Dinner. Looking good.

Rainbow chard and spinach ready to harvest!

Beers ready to harvest!

Just planted new onions last week and they are growing!!!

Just planted new onions last week and they are growing!!!

Basil and parsley on the patio.

Basil and parsley on the patio.

Jack be littles, cone flowers and tomatoes on the trellis.

Jack be littles, cone flowers and tomatoes on the trellis.

The "Ketchup and Fries" plant is producing tomatoes. Wonder about potatoes beneath the surface!!!

The “Ketchup and Fries” plant is producing tomatoes. Wonder about potatoes beneath the surface!!!

Broccoli is shading the newly planted greens.

Broccoli is shading the newly planted greens.

A mouse is nibbling on the strawberries. Hope the mole cage will protect the other ones.

A mouse is nibbling on the strawberries. Hope the mole cage will protect the other ones.

Leeks are growing tall. Anticipating potato leek soup very soon.

Leeks are growing tall. Anticipating potato leek soup very soon.

Zinnias are my favorite!!

Zinnias are my favorite!!

Posing next to my flower bed.

Posing next to my flower bed.

Selecting some herbs to harvest.

Selecting some herbs to harvest.

Participating in an Art Research Project on the History of American Gardens — Summer 2015

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Ready to plant on St. Patrick's Day.

Ready to plant on St. Patrick’s Day.

The Garden Project — Connecting today’s gardeners with history.  This Spring, I responded to a Facebook post by a Smith alumna looking for gardeners to participate in a research project.   The prospect sounded great so I immediately contacted Lee Fearnside, a Smith grad and art professor at Tiffin University in Ohio, and offered to participate.  I also thought being part of a documentary/art research project might be something fun to talk about!   After exchanging several emails, I was in!   The first step was to select an heirloom vegetable to grow this season, photograph it, share the photos and report on it.   I chose to grow Tom Thumb peas which I’ve planted many times in the past.   I received a package of seeds, a contract and a t-shirt in the mail just a few days before my annual St. Patrick’s Day pea planting. At the time, I hadn’t read the fine print in the contract so I thought the focus of the study was what gardeners like me and others around the country might be growing.   I later learned that our testimony and photos would supplement historical research on American gardeners from the past and be part of a multimedia presentation including a short documentary film, a website, an art exhibit and possibly, academic papers and presentations.

Planting day!

Planting day!

By late Spring, I had planted the peas at home and in my community plots, photographed the stages and harvested what hail and rabbits had not damaged.  This summer, Professor Fearnside and I have been trying to find a time to Skype so she can interview me. Between busy schedules, technological difficulties and young children under foot, the interview has not yet occurred.   We have an appointment scheduled for next week which I hope will finally work out.   I hope to be able to tell her about my experience with the Tom Thumb peas and my reflections on the two questions she forwarded to me:

  • Why do you garden?
  • What do you learn from gardening?    

I am still contemplating how I will answer these questions without talking for hours about my decades as a gardener.   Without these questions to reflect upon,  however, I worried that all I might have to talk about were the problems I had had with my peas.    My crop had been fairly dismal due two massive hail storms in June which shredded the protective netting I used to protest the peas from the rabbits.   The 2-3 ft tall pea plants were pummeled at my community garden and only some survived.   At home, a lone bunny managed to circumvent my netting to eat the peas while stuck.    Unfortunately, the bunny was later eaten by another animal and I was treated to a bloody bunny head entangled in the net hovering above the row of  mowed down pea shoots.

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Peas are planted — March 2015. Onions on both sides to deter rabbits.

Protecting the peas from the becoming the bunny buffet.

Protecting the peas from the becoming the bunny buffet.

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Late May, the peas are growing next to onions and underneath a tulle net. So far, so good.

Post hail storm -- protective net shredded and some pea plants still standing.

Post hail storm — protective net shredded and some pea plants still standing.

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Surviving peas nestled under the damaged netting. So far, the rabbits aren’t eating them.

Here is the description of the research project in the contract I signed:

 

The Garden Project

Description of Research Study and Research Question:   This project examines the social uses of personal gardens by researching both different historical periods in the US (specifically late 17th/early 18th colonial farming practices, late 19th century upper-middle-class gardens, and Victory gardens promoted during World War I and II) and comparing that research to the responses of contemporary gardeners.   the purpose of this research is to explore why people have personal gardens, and how the practices and attitudes of personal gardens function in periods of intense social change.   this research will involve interviews of scholars, archival research, as well as participation through interviews and photographs of contemporary gardeners and their gardens.   The project is a multimedia art project, meaning that it will have several interdisciplinary manifestations, including a website, a photography books and a short documentary video, as well as possible academic papers or presentations.

I’ll share more about the project as it develops.   For more information, check out the project website:   http://www.GardenProject.us.

The Garden Project t-shirt.

The Garden Project t-shirt.

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By late June, the peas are drying up and the harvest is pretty much done. I will clip the pea plants at the surface and the leave the roots in the ground to add nitrogen to the soil.

My Heirloom Garlic Stash

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My Heirloom Garlic Stash
Talking About Heirloom Garlic and Its Health Benefts for the Smith Club of Colorado

Talking About Heirloom Garlic and Its Health Benefts for the Smith Club of Colorado

In preparation for a garlic talk I gave for my local Smith Alumnae Club, I was lucky enough to get one of each type of heirloom garlic grown at my community garden this year — freshly harvested, cleaned and dried.    There are 13 different types and I am determined to get to know the unique qualities each one offers.   Most of them are hardneck varieties which are very flavorful and have a shelf life of 4-6 months.   I will plant some of these and eat the rest.   Rosedale Community will have all these varieties for sale at their annual sale in September.   The garden is also planning a garlic tasting event for October.  For more information, check out the website at http://www.rosedalegarden.org.

Although I am a garlic lover and use it frequently in my cooking, I am not yet an expert on which varieties to use for what dishes.   Like wine, there is a whole frontier of garlic variation to explore.   Right now, I do know that Thermadrone is very popular in French cooking for its mild Dijon flavor.   And, Spanish Roja is very popular in the U.S.

As a start, I have been growing heirloom garlic in my garden for several years — although the tags on my 2014 planting faded during the winter so I am not sure which is which.   I will attempt to compare my newly harvested bulbs to the ones I got from Rosedale and if possible, make a taste comparision.   In any case, growing my own organic garlic is a step up from buying the usual California Late and California Early available at the local grocery store.   Its my mission this year to move up into the ranks of garlic afficionado and share some of my new found knowledge with my friends and family.   I would love to hear about your experiences growing and eating different varieties of garlic.   Go!!

Here is what the individual varieties look like close up:

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Between Harvest and Kitchen

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11834934_10206248836413247_1252265432375814819_oSeveral months ago, I had the opportunity to attend an awesome 2-day workshop entitled “Garden Troubleshooting” at the Denver Urban Gardens headquarters.   We learned about good bugs, bad bugs and a variety of plant diseases and disorders and how to address them.   Many of those lessons have come in handy for me this summer.   But now that its harvest time, I find myself referring to the section on when and how to harvest and how to store my produce.   Thanks to Carol O’Meara of the Colorado State University Extension in Boulder County, I have a better handle on how to harvest and store my produce.   Here is some of what she shared with us in the her workshop, “Between Harvest and Kitchen”.

Three Golden Rules:

  • Keep it cool
  • Keep it wet
  • Handle with care

 

Too Much Cooling is a Bad Thing and can cause high respiration, uneven ripening, off flavor, pitting, premature rotting, discoloration or woody tissue, fungal disease

Chilling Injury Thresholds

  • 45 F:           beans, cucumbers, peppers, eggplant
  • 45-50 F:     melons
  • 50 F:           tomatoes/winter squash
  • 55 F:            sweet potato (put in frig for 2 weeks to make sweeter)

Curing:  a short time in a warm, dry place which toughens the skins, dries surface, improves flavor and texture and heals cuts.

  • potatoes, pumpkins, winter squash (is sweeter later); except for acorn squash which gets stringy
  • onions need 5-7 dayss at a dry 70-80 F
  • sweet potatoes need 5-7 days at 80-85 F and humid

Harvesting

Snap Beans

  • pod diameter, not length determines quality
  • harvest after dew evaporates
  • avoid tearing or damaging pods; don’t squeeze them
  • keep harvested pods out of the sun
  • cool within 2 hours of harvest
  • store in refrigerator with humidy pad (damp paper towel)

Broccoli

  • water consistently
  • heads should have dark or bright green closed (no yellow) florets

    Broccoli is ready to harvest.

    Broccoli is ready to harvest.

  • compact, firm to hand pressure
  • steams bright green with no discoloration
  • rapidly cool and store cool

Brussel Sprouts

  • spouts found at base of leaf
  • harvest at 1-2 inches diameter
  • sprouts mature form bottom of stalk up
  • harvest individually
  • front sweetens flavor, but avoid letting them freeze
  • cool

Corn

  • green husk, dry brown silk
  • loses sugar rapidly in heat
  • pick in early morning, cool immediately
  • eat soon
  • store at 32 F in humidity for up to 5 days

Eggplant

  • before seed matures
  • look for firm, glossy pods
  • when pressed with fingernail, indentation remains
  • fresh, green calyx

Garlic

  • cut water when leaves brown
  • harvest when leaves are 2/3 brown

    I waited for the stems to dry after clipping off the garlic scapes several weeks ago. Ready to dig up the garlic cloves.

    I waited for the stems to dry after clipping off the garlic scapes several weeks ago. Ready to dig up the garlic cloves.

  • don’t wash bulbs with water — will ruin
  • cure garlic in dry, warm location for 7-10 days
  • cut stems to one inch
  • can freeze in glass, leave papery outer skin

Melons

  • Count the days.   roughly one month after the plant flowers, melons begin ripening.
  • should be full -boidied and heavy for their size; some changes in fruit color yellow to tan
  • muskmelons slip from the steam easily when ripe
  • watermelon belly turns cream or yellow and the tendrils closet to fruit wither
  • cantelope:   neeting, count days from flowering, fruit behind bloom female once flower closed — 40 days
  • muskmelons slip:   smell it, stem will have crack 2/3 around (slip stage); time to sling if trellised.

Onions

  • harvest young 1/4 inch to 1 inch for fresh use; 1- 1/2 for pickling or when tops have fallen over and necks are shriveled for storage
  • air dry in single layers in shade for 3-4 weeks; remove tops
  • don’t wet, wait a day to cure
  • storing — onions vary in storage capability, more pungent types with high soluble solids contents store longer, mild onions with low soluble solids contents are rarly stored for more than a month,
  • store at 32-50 F or RH 60-70%

Peppers

  • clip from plant
  • more susceptible to sunscald, water loss and heat damage after harvest
  • store at 40-45 F, high humidity
  • paprika is a dry blend of peppers, remove seeds

Potatoes

  • stop irrigation 2-3 weeks prior to harvest
  • remove vines before digging tubers
  • cure for 2 weeks in 45-60 F dark room – this will set skins
  • prevent sun exposure which will green skins and is toxic
  • can store up to 10 months in proper conditions
  • store at 39-45 F, 95-98 percent RH, air circulation

Root Crops

Carrots

  • clip tops for storage at 33 F in high humidity
  • mulch carrots for fresh pulling into winter, hill a foot of straw over shoulders after ground cools in fall
  • dig and store before ground freezes
  • parsnips like to get cold
  • can use carrot tops in salad

Beets

  • harvest at 1.5-2 inchues, pull fall planted beets before first freeze
  • clip tops to 1 inch before refrigerating up to two weeks
  • do not store in frozen ground

Parsnips, horseradish, turnips

  • improve in flavor with light freezing
  • at temps 28-34 F starch converts to sugar
  • mulch with straw and leave in ground into winter
  • pull and use before Spring

Tomatoes

Harvesting Tomatoes

  • harvest when fruits are uniformly red, but before end softens
  • ripe fruit sinks in water (useful when gauging ripeness of green tomatoes)
  • when to let the season end — frost protection works best on tomatoes already coloring up, green ones are harmed by chill
  • if there is a run of cold nights, pick off green tomatoes and leave the blushed ones on the plant

    Tomatoe ready to pick.

    Tomatoe ready to pick.

Speed Up Ripening

  • thinning — immature fruit won’t size up or ripen by season’s end, so snip off blossoms and young fruit to leave the plant’s energy to full-grown tomatoes
  • new shoots and overloads of mature tomatoes also slow ripening prune off suckers and young stems, then pluck a few green tomatoes for ripening on the counter
  • on run of cool nights, pick off green ones to let blush ones ripen
  • cut back water to the plants to hasten vine ripening
  • pull the plant from the ground and hang it upside down in a dry, sheltered area.   Fruit should be harvested before completely ripe and allowed to finish on the counter or it may fll from the vine and create a mess

When Frost Hits

  • once hit by frost, tomatoes break down quickly and are not suitable for canning
  • cut off the bad spots, then use immediately in your favorite recipes or chop and freeze them for winter dishes

Green Tomatoes for Storage

  • pick green tomatoes for strage from healthy vines or pink ones to ripen on the counter
  • prevent problesm from rot:   harvest when plants are dry, avoiding fruit that is diseased or has insect damage
  • clip tomoatoes from the wine, many heirlloms have “knuckled” stems that tear
  • mature green tomatoes stores best — those that are full-sized, glossy light green to white with a whitish star on the blossom end
  • tip:   dark green tomatoes are immature and should be used right away as fried green tomatoes, in relish or stewed

    The final tomatoe harvest before the hard frost.

    The final tomatoe harvest before the hard frost.

Harvest

  • breakers:   should your tomatoes begin to color at the blossom end, know as a “breaker”, it will continue to ripen quickly for you on your counter and taste close to vine ripened
  • pinks:   colored up but not fully ripe will ripen on the counter
  • sort tomatoes into groups that will ripen at the same speed — mature green, breakers, pinks and red

Countertop Holding/Ripening

  • at room temperature, red tomatoes are ready within a day or two
  • pinks (3-=60 % colored) will be ready in 7-10 days
  • mature greens and breakers, up to 14 days

Storing Green Tomatoes

  • clip stems short, wash gently and pat dry.  Store in a box with good ventilation at 55-68 degrees (frig too cold)
  • check tomatoes frequently for spoiling
  • to store longer, wrap tomatoes in newspaper and place 1-2 layers deep in a box.  Keep in a cool, 55-60 degree room, out of sunlight.

Winter Squash

  • speed ripening by cutting back water to the plant slowly over a few weeks so you don’t interrupt growth of young squash
  • pluck blossoms from the plant to allow the plant to pump energy into the fruit
  • watch for signs of maturity, such as stem drying out or the rind turning a deep color
  • harvest when the skin toughens and isn’t dented by pressure from a fingernail; stem turns tan
  • cut stem from vine with sharp knife, leaving stem attached to squash (w/o stem, squash decays around stem scar)
  • cure 10 days in dry room, 75-85 F

In Garden Storage

  • beets, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, celery, endive, cos or romaine lettuce, kale, leeks, and onions can withstand the early light frosts store for several weesk under a heavy (1 ft. mulch)
  • Pits/Mounds:    dig a 6-10 inch deep trench, layer 3-4 inches of straw, place cabbage, carrots, beets, celeriac, kohlrobi, rutabagas, turnips, and winter radishes on top of much, cover with 12 inches straw, then 3 inches soil; once you open mound, ALL produce must be removed and used within 2 weeks

Root Cellars

  • store potatoes, carrots, beets, turnips, rutabagas, winter radishes, kohlrabi, parsnips

Recommended Storage Temperatures and Relative Humidity Levels

COLD AND VERY MOIST  (33-40 F, 90-95% RH)

Beets, Brussel Sprouts, Carrots, Parsnips, Turnips, Rutabegas, Leeks, Celeriax, Winter Radish (Daikon), Sunchokes

COLD AND MOIST (32-40 F, 80-90% RH)

Potatoes, Apples, Cabbage

COOL AND DRY (32-50 F, 60-70% RH)

Garlic, Onions, Dry Beans

MODERATELY WARM AND DRY (50-60 F, 60-70% RH)

Winter Squash, Pumpkin, Sweet Tomatoes